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Ancient Indian Architecture

Ancient Indian Architecture

The Science of Architecture and Civil Construction was known in
Ancient India as Sthapatya-Shastra. The word Sthapatya is derived from
the root word Sthapana i.e. 'to establish'. The technique of
architecture was both a science and an art, hence it is also known as
Sthapatya-kala, the word Kala means an art.

From very early times the construction of temples, palaces, rest
houses and other civil construction was undertaken by professional
architects known as Sthapati. Even during the Vedic times, there
existed professionals who specialized in the technique of constructing
chariots and other heavy instruments of war. These professionals have
been referred to in the Rig Veda as Rathakara which literally means
'chariot maker'.

The excavations of the ruins at Mohenjodaro and Harrappa (today in
Pakistan) proved the existence of a developed Urban civilization in
India. The Indus valley civilization is dated around 3000 B.C. Thus
since the last 5000 years. India has had an urban civilization. The
existence of an urban civilization presumes the existence of well
developed techniques of architecture and construction.

These techniques would no doubt have had been systematically stated in
record books for transmitting them to the later generations as well
for being used as reference media for actual construction.
Unfortunately, as far as the Indus Valley civilization goes no such
records have been preserved either as rock edicts, manuscripts, etc.,
or in folk tales and legends.

But the fact that cities on the scale of Mohenjodaro had been
constructed bear testimony to the existence of a systematized and
highly developed technique of architecture 5000 years ago.

But in the later ages, from about the 7th century B.C., we have both
literature references as well as archeological evidences to prove the
existence of large urban civilizations in the Ganges Valley. Like in
most other sciences, even remotely connected with religion, in
architecture also the scientific ideas and techniques have been
integrated with philosophy and theology. This was so as the majority
of the large constructions were temples. As the construction of Hindu
temples rarely used mortar but used a technique where the stones could
be affixed to one another with the force of gravity. The technique
followed in doing this was similar to the one used in the Roman
Aqueducts. The exquisite carvings were engraved after the stones had
been fixed in their places. Thus the carving of figurines right up to
the top of a temples roof must have been a demanding task.

Indian techniques of art and architecture spread both westwards and
eastwards. During the reign of Ashoka; Afghanistan, Baluchistan and
Seistan were parts of the Mauryan empire. Buddhist Stupas were
constructed in these Mauryan provinces. Unfortunately, very few of
them have survived till today.

However the huge Boddhisattvas (statues of Buddha) that were cut out
of rock faces covering entire mountain faces and cliffs, have survived
human and natural ravages and can even today be seen at Bamiyan in
Afghanistan. During Kushana times, Central Asia was a part of the
Kushana empire. Indian art blended with Greek and Kushana styles, and
spread into central Asia.

Thus India's cultural frontiers at one time extended up to Balkh
(referred to as Vahalika in Vedic texts) on the river Oxus (Akshu) and
beyond, and played an important role in shaping the art traditions
which flourished between the 1st and the 8th centuries in Central

The Gandhara school of art of Afghanistan and Central Asia was
actually derived from Indian art styles. In fact even the portrait art
of the Oxus region claimed by some scholars to have been an
independent school is actually an extension of Indian art forms.

Besides Central Asia, the whole of Southeast Asia received most its
art and architectural traditions from India. Along with Buddhism,
Indian art and architecture also traveled to countries like Indonesia,
Malaysia, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma as also to China,
Korea and Japan. Sri Lanka being on our back door was heavily
influenced by Indian art and architecture.

The Mandala was a blueprint for any Vastu (edifice) Vastu-Shastra was
an amalgam of architecture and theology.


The Stupas in Sri Lanka which belong to the period between the 3rd
Century B.C. to 4th century A.D. follow the Indian pattern of a
hemispherical Stupa shaped like an egg and called Anda.


The inter-locking dome of the Stupa was to be the prototype for the
domes (over Mosques and churches) that were built later by Romans and

The Dome of the Mosques in Islamic Architecture is derived from the

The hemispherical construction of the Stupas also seems to have
influenced Byzantine architecture perhaps through Pre-Islamic,
Sassanian Persia. The famous Sophia mosque at Istanbul overlooking the
Bosphorous Straits has domes which closely resemble the Buddhist
Stupa. In fact th minarets in the mosque were erected late when the
Ottoman Turks captured Istanbul (then called Constantinople) from the
Byzantine Empire in the 15th century.


The dome over this Mosque at Istanbul has borrowed the technique from
the Indian Stupa The mosque, incidentally was built as a Church but
was later converted into a mosque by the conquering Ottoman Turks.

One can imagine that without the minarets, the mosque, which was
originally a Christian Cathedral must have looked very much like a
Stupa. In fact this style of architecture also influenced Islamic
architecture. The dome mosques in all Muslim countries perhaps have
borrowed the style of having dome from the Anda of the Buddhist Stupa.

Indian influences have also felt in Europe Christian Basilicas have
similarities with the Buddhist Stupas. Their mosaics seem have
borrowed ideas from, the Buddhist chaityas. Indian motifs can also be
traced in Gothic sculpture in the carvings in the cathedrals of
Bayeux, Achen and Trier. Though this influence has been indirect and
slight, its existence cannot be denied. But the more pervading
influence of Indian art and architecture through Buddhism was in
countries of south-east Asia.

Bernard Groslier the author of the section on 'Indochina' in the 'Art
of the World Series' has made the following observations about the
influence of Indian Art.

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Roman Architecture

Roman Architecture

The Romans gained much of their engineering skill from the Etruscans and drew on Etruscan and Asian models for the semicircular arch. From them, the Romans learned the use of the keystone arch, which enabled them to build extremely strong and durable structures. Many of these engineering and architectural projects are still standing. Some are still in use after two thousand years like this bridge in Spain. Early Roman architects were influenced by Greek post-and-lintel construction. But the Greek design was limited in its capabilities to span large distances and being able to bear heavy loads while not falling down of its own weight.

Post and lintel construction comprises a flat piece of stone bridging a space between two upright supports. Post and lintel supports have a flaw. When a heavy weight is placed on the middle of the span too much stress may be put on the stone and it can break in the middle. The Romans solved this problem by using a type of construction called voussoir arch with keystone.

The engineering principle of the arch is quite simple. The circle is the strongest structural shape. The arch is just half of this perfect form. To create a voussoir arch, tapered stone blocks were cut then arranged like the diagram at the right. It was then stood up on its ends.

The ends rested on piers made of stone blocks or bricks mortared together with pozzolana cement in the typical Roman arch bridge. The cement was named after a local mountain that the ingredients of the cement came from. The weight of the stone and concrete of the bridge itself compressed the tapered stones together, making the arch an extremely strong structure. During construction, the voussoir's were supported by a temporary wooden frame until the keystone was inserted. The Roman invention of the arch allowed architects to build larger structures than ever before. The extension of the arch idea lead to the development of domes, alcoves, and soffits.

The arches and its derivatives were also employed in Triumphal Arches, aqueducts, bridges, houses, theaters, exedra, nynpheum, basilicas, thermal baths and temples. The Coliseum is a prime example of the many uses of arches. The arches allowed for a tall and wide structure to accommodate many people. The wide arches also enabled people to move in and out of the building safely and quickly. They also provided spaces for visitors to sit and places to display works of art. The Romans took the form of the simple arch and developed it into many forms. With their insight, modern day architecture has been functionally advanced its beauty enhanced and variety diversified.

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Writing and Architecture

Writing and Architecture

A story is not a story until it is told. The way that this is done gives it depth, meaning, and tone. A house is not a house until it is built. The way that this is done gives it character, purpose, and life. Writing and architecture are very similar in that the idea of the piece is expressed through the choices that are made. It is up to the author or designer to determine how the idea will be interpreted and what method will be used to communicate the idea. Choosing the means that will express the idea is a critical decision that will affect the outcome in dramatic ways.

When designing a house, an architect will establish an architectural idea that will be an underlying factor in the design. After choosing an idea, a means of articulating the idea is determined that will suit the client and relate to the context of its surroundings, whether it be sympathetic or contrastive. The basic form or shape of the house begins to give it meaning and locates the frame of reference. An important factor in building a house is whether the house is built to replicate past periods, such as Victorian, or has a modern design. The actual design of the house, where the walls, doors, and windows will be placed, brings out the architectural idea. In a book dealing with the architecture of houses the author has this to say: "Windows do more than let in light and air. The way they are placed in a wall affects our understanding of the whole house" (Moore, Allen, Lyndon qtd. in Allen 203).

The materials bring another level of understanding to the design. The difference between cedar shingles and modular steel panels is significant when determining the tone of the house.

I shall always remember how as a child I played on the wooden floor. The wide boards were warm and friendly, and in their texture I discovered a rich and enchanting world of veins and knots. I also remember the comfort and security experienced when falling asleep next to the round logs of an old timber wall; a wall which was not just a plain surface but had a plastic presence like everything alive. Thus sight, touch, and even smell were satisfied, which is as it should be when a child meets the world. (Norberg-Shultz qtd. in Allen 83)

This architect recalls how important the materials that his home was made of were to his memories. Bringing the form of the house, the material choice, and its relation to its surroundings gave the architecture meaning and depth.

The architect must also establish credibility in the design. There are laws and standards both written and unwritten that must be followed or addressed. A common idea is that a house must have three parts: a base or foundation, the middle, and a roof. Without these parts there would be an imbalance that would not appeal to most people. One architect writing about the importance of this balance says that the"...roof plays a primal role in our lives. The most primitive buildings are nothing but a roof. If the roof is hidden, if its presence cannot be felt around the building, or if it cannot be used, then people will lack a fundamental sense of shelter" (Alexander qtd. in Allen 598). An architect may modify this idea, but the imbalance that is created must be dealt with in some way. The design must also function in an efficient way. It must be a logical and convenient sequence through the house.

When writers begin a piece, they must determine the form that they will use to communicate their ideas. A personal essay such as Alice Walker's "Beauty: When the Other Dancer is the Self" is a very different genre than the novel The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. Both pieces explore the idea of beauty, but because of the different genres, ideas and arguments are expressed in very different ways. The tone of Morrison's novel is somewhat dreary. There is a dark side to the text that is used to address the fact that ideas of beauty can be very painful. Walker's essay has an upbeat mood. Although there are parts where she expresses the pain that she felt, there are areas that bring hints of hope to these sections.

The authors must also use language to bring depth and texture to a piece. Diction is chosen to appeal to an audience and to establish a tone for the piece that may be evidence of the argument that they are making. It also gives the piece a deeper meaning by bringing the reader into the vocabulary of the scene, adding another layer of detail to the passage. Morrison uses a diction that would be typical of the characters in the novel, giving them depth that leads to a better understanding of the characters as well as the argument that she is making. Often when describing events Morrison uses language that paints a harsh picture:

They seemed to have taken all of their smoothly cultivated ignorance, their exquisitely learned self-hatred, their elaborately designed hopelessness and sucked it all up into a fiery cone of scorn that had burned for ages in the hollows of their minds--cooled--and spilled over lips of outrage, consuming whatever was in its path. They danced a macabre ballet around the victim, whom, for their own sake, they were prepared to sacrifice to the flaming pit. (55)

Descriptions like this one, where some boys are taunting Pecola, have an angry tone that supports her argument that beauty is drawn along the lines of race by showing how these boys were affected by this internal anger.

To establish credibility, authors must convince the reader in some way that they are authorities on the subject. This can be done by the author identifying their sex, race, or social standing, or by establishing themselves as an authority on a certain subject. It can also be done by establishing an intellectual milieu that allows the reader to associate the author with certain positions that can be used to back up the arguments. Knowing that Morrison is an African-American woman allows the reader to believe that she may be very familiar with the problems that face the characters in her novel. Her use of low diction brings the novel to the level of the characters. "Later I throw up, and my mother says, 'What did you puke on the bed clothes for?...You think I got time for nothing but washing up your puke?' The puke swaddles down the pillow onto the sheet-- green-gray, with flecks of orange." This use of rough language recognizes the attitude of the society that she is writing about. When describing the character Soaphead Church, Morrison writes, "thus he chose to remember Hamlet's abuse of Ophelia, but not Christ's love of Mary Magdalene;...Othello's love for the fair Desdemona, but not Iago's perverted love of Othello. The works he admired most were Dante's; those he despised most were Dostoevski's"(134). References to these great writers shows that she is a well educated woman gaining the respect of the reader.

Writing in the first person gives Walker credibility because the piece is about her experiences. The piece establishes her view of beauty through short sketches in her life. She remembers: "I am in the desert for the first time. I fall totally in love with it. I am so overwhelmed by its beauty"(26). The personal essay allows her to gain the confidence of the reader, and she is able to say directly what her definition of beauty is. Including her own poetry in the essay, I believe, also adds to her credibility. Her piece deals with beauty showing how it has affected her, proving that it is something that she has dealt with and how she has brought it into her work.

Both authors focus on what beauty means to them; however, there are two different arguments. Morrison uses the novel to argue that beauty is written along the lines of race. She uses built up histories and experiences of the characters to show that race played a major factor in what they thought as lovely and that these experiences in their lives shaped these opinions. Because Morrison's argument deals with notions of beauty along lines of race, choosing the novel form allows her to express her ideas more clearly. She is able to go into depth using a wider range of characters to show that this is not an isolated incident, but something that affects an entire group of people.

Walker's piece argues that beauty is triumph over tragedy. Her personal essay takes the reader through a series of events in her life that have a particular focus: how she overcomes a conflict. The culmination of her argument occurs when she realizes there "was a world in my eye. And I saw that it was possible to love it: that in fact for all it had taught me of shame and anger and inner vision I did love it" (27). The progression of the events shows the reader how she develops this attitude toward beauty. Her argument is from a more personal standpoint, and so becomes more real to the reader.

Finally, the architect and the author must understand completely the basic skills of producing a piece before they can attempt to express their argument. "Go into the field where you can see the machines and methods at work that make the modern buildings, or stay in construction direct and simple until you can work naturally into the building-design from the nature of construction (qtd. in Allen 13)." This quote by Frank Lloyd Wright written in the book To the Young Man in Architecture shows how important is it for an architect to be able to work with the materials and methods used to create buildings. As an architect chooses a style and material for a building, an author must choose a form and language. By combining these and establishing credibility, the author or designer is able to give the piece depth, meaning, and texture that will give their idea clarity and strength.

Works Cited
Allen, Edward. Fundamentals of Building Construction: Materials and Methods. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1990.

Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. New York: Washington Square Press, 1972.

Walker, Alice. "Beauty: When the Other Dancer is the Self." In Search of Our Mother's Gardens. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1983.

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Evolution of Queen Anne Architecture In America

Evolution of Queen Anne Architecture In America

Queen Anne architecture can not be defined easily. It's architectural style has many different characteristics. In this paper, I will show how the Queen Anne style evolved from the architecture that was common during the reign of Queen Anne herself and also show how it evolved in America in the late 1800's during the Industrial Revolution. I will then show how the Queen Anne style is incorporated into today's architectural design.
First, a little background on Queen Anne. Anne was born February 6, 1665 to the parents of James, Duke of York and Lady Anne Hyde. She was born in the St. James Palace of London. Anne's father later reigned as James II, but was later dethroned by Anne's sister and brother-in-law Mary and William. Both Mary and William ruled together until their deaths and because they were childless, Anne succeeded them to the throne.
Anne's legacy was one of increase of influence of ministers and decrease of authority of the Crown. The reign of Anne was also one of artistic and literary advancement. Some characteristics of later Queen Anne style was evident in some of the architecture during her time. A famous architect from that time was Sir John Vanbrugh who designed elegant edifices such as Blenheim Palace, home of the Marlboroughs. He also designed Castle Howard. Part of the elaborate nature of these designs are common in Queen Anne architecture today.
Queen Anne died August 1, 1714 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Queen Anne architecture can be defined as elaborate and flamboyant. This architecture is lavish with steeply pitched and irregularly shape roofs. Queen Anne style is asymmetrical. Ironically, this style more closely resembles that of the Victorian age…the age of Queen Victoria…rather then the architectural style during the period of Queen Anne.
Even more ironic is the fact that Queen Anne architecture got its roots and thrived during the machine age. It is ironic in the fact that a style so lavish could exist in an era where factories were becoming a large part of America. Heading into the late 1800's America had been mostly an agricultural country. Our nation was mostly made up of farms and plantations. This began to change in the late 1800's.
The late 1800's saw the beginning of the industrial revolution. Railroads were sweeping across our country and it took steel to make it run. The steel industry became very much in demand. Steel mills were springing up everywhere and immigrants were pouring into our country to work in them. Recently freed slaves were also flocking to the steel factories as well. This gave investors a cheap source of labor and for the first time in our country we had a new generation of millionaires.
With wealth comes spending and many of these wealthy people began to build lavish homes. Architects at that time were aided by the fact that precut architectural parts were being produced in factories and were easy to get shipped to various parts of the country with the rapidly expanding railroad system. Builders combined these pieces into elaborate architectural styled homes.
Queen Anne architecture cannot be narrowed into one category. It's architecture is defined many different ways and sometimes those ways are combined. Following are different types of Queen Anne architectural styles.

Spindled: This style is what usually comes to mind when we think of Queen Anne architecture. Also called "gingerbread" houses, they are characterized by delicately turned porch post and ornamental spindles. This style is also known as Eastlake because it resembles the style of a famous English designer, Charles Eastlake.

Free Classic: Free classic style is different from spindled style. Instead of the ornamental spindles, this style has large columns that usually sit upon brick or stone piers. Free Classic Queen Anne also might have Palladian windows and dentil molding. Palladian windows are three-part windows were the center part is large and it has two smaller windows on each side. Dentil molding a series of a series of closely spaced, rectangular blocks that form a molding.

Half Timbered: Half timbered Queen Anne architecture resembles the Tudor style homes we see today. They are characterized by an exposed wood framing. The space between the framing is filled with plaster, brick, or stone. A highly decorative style of half timbered homes are called stick style. This style had it's problems with the harsh North American winters. The plaster and fill in between the wood framing was very drafty, causing many builders to cover the Half Timbered homes with wood or plaster.

Patterned Masonry: This style is frequently found in the city. These types of Queen Anne's has brick, stone, or terra-cotta walls.
Shingle Style: Shingle style was made popular by the New England school of architecture. It combined the ornamental patterns of the Eastlake style and the Colonial American architecture that become popular during the Centennial in 1876. Shingles were used on the surface of the house giving a weathered look.

Queen Anne style was not just for the wealthy in our country. This architectural style was also used in the homes of the middle class. Today, much of our architecture borrows from the Queen Anne style. Patterned shingles, spindlework, extensive porches and bay windows can be found in homes throughout most communities.
In conclusion, Queen Anne is a style of architecture that was born out of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1800's in America. It's style is not easily defined or placed into a category. This style evolved over the years and is present in much of the architecture that we see today in America. Once a style used mainly be the wealthy, it can be seen in most neighborhoods in our country.

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Difference Between Italian And French Baroque Architecture

Difference Between Italian And French Baroque Architecture

Baroque is the name given to the art of the 17th century. But the baroque style, like all other styles in the history of art, began gradually. It started in the latter part of the 16th century and continued to be used well into the 18th century. Baroque can be defied as the florid, ornate style characterizing fine arts in Europe from the middle 16th to middle 18th centuries. The main characteristic of the baroque architecture is movement. Architects wanted their buildings to be exciting and to give the impression of activity. They did this by making dramatic contrasts of light and shadow and by using curved shapes.

The Renaissance enthusiasm for antiquity led the architects to adhere to the rules of classic architecture as far as they were understood. The baroque style flouted these laws. By mid-century the carefully controlled and subtly refined Classical Baroque trend was clearly established. In France, its pre-eminent position was never seriously challenged. French Baroque architecture was more restrained in its expression than its Italian counterpart. The most common and remembered details that made the two styles different were its culture, economy, religion, government, and economics. These can make one style very different from the other, but there were also other reasons why.

Italians were the first to come up with Baroque architecture, they became very interested in the surroundings of their buildings. They placed elaborate gardens around places. They set off important buildings in the cities by open squares decorated with fountains or colonnades. Roads leading from the squares giving a dramatic view of stairways, sculpture, or other buildings far in the distance. These were some of the things the Italians thought up when they first started up this new style, so when the french took in the Italians ideas, they surly changed them into what they were looking for. The French architects were full cognizant of the principals discovered in Italy, but they were also influenced by traditional French values and chose to limit their architectural vocabulary in accordance with them. Within these self-imposed limits they produced works of great order wherein variety was achieved principally through subtle adjustments in rhythm and proportions of mass and wall surface. While the French went for the massive but yet most rhythmical and dynamic composition, in Italy, there was a strong directional emphasis put to use.

The three most important and notable baroque architects in France in the 17th century were Jacques Lemercier (1580/5-1654), a man who was a master of delicate elegant line and graceful silhouettes which he ingeniously combined with forceful mass. He was most noted for his work on the Church of the Sorbonne. Next is Francois Mansart (1598-1666), a man who’s exteriors and interiors, composed with scrupulous purity and infinite stability, make him in architecture the cornerstone of French Baroque Classicism. He was best known for his work on the Ste Marie de la Visitation and Chateau of Blois. Finally Louis Levau (1612-1670), a man who emphasized on terraced, parterres, pools, fountains, all to provide an axial relationship to his work. He was best known for his work on the Chateau and Gardens of Vaux-le-Vicomte and College des Quatre Nations.

The wide variety of expression inherent in the Baroque can be best understood by examining the works of Italians Francesco Borromini (1599-1666), Guarino Guarini (1624-1683) and Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680). Francesco in many ways, was the spiritual father of Guarini. Born in Canton Ticino in the Alps, he went to Rome where he stayed his whole life. Suspicious, moody, and dedicated, he, almost fanatical in his pursuit of perfection, carefully supervised all the stages of his design. He is most remembered for the Carlo all Quattro Fontane and the Ivo. Guarino the only architect who developed the expressive power of structure and space to even greater degrees than any body else. He was many things including a teacher and a priest, but is remembered for his works of art. He might not have the longest list of works, but the ones he actually did complete were praised for effort put into them. He is most remembered for the work on the Turin and the Church of the Immaculate Conception. Giovanni, one of the most brilliant and energetic of all the 17th century artists, was know for his depth in all aspects of Baroque. He did not spend all his time on architecture, but when he did, the final product was in a class of its own. He is remembered for his work on the Andrea al Quirinale and Chigi-Odescalchi.

Each architect who came into the seen tried to outdo the others, that is why Baroque architecture stretched the limits of what could be done. It paved a road for all other styles to come, showing that different doesn’t necessarily mean abhorrent. The Baroque period came after the technically perfect Renaissance period, and was followed be the Rococo period. Most people cancel the baroque period out, but the way it looks, baroque defined all odds and caught the eye of art people in Europe, single handedly changing the way we look at architecture and art in a whole.

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Colonial Architecture in New England

 Colonial Architecture in New England

Table of contents:

  1. America’s architecture  during colonial times
  1. New  England colonial architecture
    1. First steps of constructing in  New England
    2. Transition to more effective  building
    3. Cape Cod style
  1. Colonial styles and their  example in the Boston area.
    1. Colonial styles and their  example in the Boston are
  1. Conclusion
Colonial Architecture in New England Essay
1.America’s  architecture during colonial times
One of the brightest examples of  America’s architectural heritage is the architecture of America's  colonial times. America’s colonial architecture was influenced by  the building traditions of many countries such as Spain, France and  England and others. These were the houses of the first settlers who  tried to apply their cultural traditions to the new houses they  constructed. It was the late 1600’s that gave the birth of the  colonial style and become the first step on the way of architectural  development of the country.  Back then America was divided into 13  colonies and the culture of each of the colonies together formed the  cultural well being of the young country. The architecture of that  period reveals a lot about the ways of life of the settlers. This  period was very important due to the impact in had later on the  architecture of the country in general. To understand the  peculiarities of the style it is necessary to see the reason that  lead to this peculiarities.
2. New England  colonial architecture
New England settlers by the mid  1600’s were already carrying out the ideas of constructing  substantial houses that would protect them and remind their native  land houses. Such houses are usually expected to have two stories and  the entrance situated exactly in the center of the house and a huge  chimney in the middle. The early settlers that started the  architectural movement in New England brought a lot of Anglican  elements into the building style. One of the priorities while  building any house was its level of safety. The connection of these  two components resulted in very strange but beautiful in their own  way constructions. New England was controlled by the Puritans, which  did have definite influence of the building style and the quality of  the houses. All the houses were approximately of the same economical  level. Mansions and manor houses were not constructed simultaneously  to the construction of ordinary cottages until the Georgian style.  Boston area is one of the strongest acts of concentration of the  colonial style architecture.

2.1. First steps of  constructing in New England
The colonization in New England, to  be accurate, started in 1620 generally and in 1630 in Boston area.   As the Puritans influenced the area the first structures were made of  wood and used the technology of frame structuring. Meeting the  restrictions in the materials possible to use while building all the  constructions were mainly of the same pattern. They were all  timber-framed. In the very beginning of the architecture practice the  settlers did not apply clapboard siding, but lately it was approved  and added to the primary house patters. The general shape of the  house was called “saltbox form” with a steeply pitched gable  roof. The second floor used to overhang the first floor and the  windows were very small. As it has been mentioned before it was all  complemented with a huge chimney.  The houses obtained by the New England settlers were  the representatives of a new synthesized style that was the  combination the settler’s native culture, the conveniences required  to “survive” in the new area and the lack of more effective  materials. The houses did not have any “extras”, as they were  also restricted by the religion.
2.2. Transition to  more effective building
Wooden constructions caused a lot of  problems for the settlers as the constant use of timber chimneys held  them under the constant danger of a fire breakout. Gradually, a  standard type of an English cottage was established.  The best  examples of this establishment were the houses in the Boston area,  Massachusetts. It was ordinary a one-room house in which this one  room met all the possible requirements: it was a kitchen, a living  room and a bedroom. This type of building did not require much time  and efforts and was occupied by large families. The second story was  a small garret usually used to locate children. The roof remained  steeply pitched and sometimes the fireplace was moved from the center  of the room closer to its end. Other words, the “salt-box”  engrained into the architectural traditions of the settlers in New  England. The basic improvement was the usage of clay to make the  houses more steadfast to the exterior influences.
2.3. Cape Cod style
A well-known example of the New  England colonial architecture contribution is the Cape Cod House. For  instance, Hoxie House built in 1637 in Sandwich, Massachusetts. These houses were  situated all along the Boston Bay, resisting the weather and the  climate. The houses were made of wood and were in wide clapboard or  shingles. It gave a lot of advantages over the humid climate of the  Boston area. It let the fresh air inside the house, aerating it and  at the same time it did not let the wind inside. Altogether with the  heat from the chimney it provided rather good conditions for living.  The Cape Cod style is the full reflection of the “salt-box”  houses mentioned above with some possible variations. The house  looked very symmetrical, had double-hung windows with shutters and a  very conservative outside decoration of the house.  The door and the  chimney were situated in the center of the house and there usually  were windows by the entrance. As Boston was similar to London with  its climate and water resources this type 1-1,5 storied of houses  with a small attic and a fireplace in each room proved to be suitable  for this region. It is known that New England has always possessed a  great amount of stone. Nevertheless, the end of the colonial period  in New England faced units of houses made of stone. These houses  later gave the start to a new architectural era. The settlers needed  time to learn how to treat stone and to get acquainted with stone  building.

3.Colonial styles and their example in the Boston area.
The colonial style proved to be  rather simple both in the houses and public buildings, which were  primarily churches. The 17th century architecture in the  Boston area brought mainly wooden houses. Massachusetts by itself is  the concentration of 39 different colonial style homes.  Boston area  peculiarities do not deal with a large amount of styles presented but  nevertheless the examples still remain the brightest in the whole  colonial history.
For  instance, we can review Whipple House built in 1640 in Ipswich, which is located in the North of Boston.  This famous house is an original oak, pine and chestnut framework.  There is a garden, surrounding the house, which was very typical for  the Massachusetts houses. This house is considered to be a true work  of craftsmen’s skills and masterpiece of the colonial style period.  It has a typical door at the center and a massive chimney, four  square-wave windows and two tiny square attic windows at the front.  The color palette of the house ranges from gray-blue to black. There  is nothing spare in the structure of the house; it is “classically  elegant” and it full with “symmetrical simplicity”. Another  example of a house often observed in the south of Boston is the  Harlow Old Fort House. It is a house with grayed shingles, a chimney  and gambrel roof so typical for the colonial times in New England.  The house is a pure projection of a house of the period of the  Pilgrims. Nowadays this house like many houses of that time is a  museum.
3.1.  The summary of peculiarities of the style
Summarizing  all the peculiarities of the colonial style in Boston area it is  necessary to emphasize all the possible inclinations from the  standard form in the later houses of that period. The roof can be of  three possible shapes: gabled, gambrel or hipped roof, the cornice is  of a standard classical appearance, the exterior walls have  clapboards and flat boards. The windows of the houses of this region  are double-hung, the entry is pedimented and the shape of the house  if outlined with the corner and sill boards. The front door has  windows at the sides and sometimes even in the door itself, all of  the windows in the house are symmetrically placed. The color palette  differed from dark to soft colors. The color of doors and shutters  usually differed from the color of the house itself. The houses were  mainly middle-class houses. The  New England colonial style in the Massachusetts area was spreading  fast and therefore was gradually improved. Colonial style was  replaced by the Georgian style and opened the architecture to  mansions, wealth and luxury.
The  type of houses designed during the colonial period in the Boston area  became very popular all over the United States and were not just an  English influence, but more a completely different style, American  style. The experience of the colonial settlers of New England in  general and Massachusetts in particular had an enormous impact on the  architectural development of the region. Even the contemporary houses  posses the elements of the colonial homes and become especially  elegant owing to them. American architectural heritage is perfectly  reflected in the colonial architecture in New England with Boston in  its heart. Massachusetts is a historical museum of the colonial  times. The historic traditions of the region have to be remembered  and traces. So therefore it is tremendously important to be able to  recognize the colonial New England style form numerous other styles  represented in the United Stated of America

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skyscraper architecture http://www.coshe.com/search/ The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. Benny Louie Humanity 450 Dr. Maureen Schmid 17 May 1999 The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. In our modern society, the architectural design of skyscrapers is changing the downtown landscape of metropolitan areas. Due to the change of technologies, it has changed the architectural design of skyscraper dramatically in terms of the its function, design structures, heating and cooling systems and it social status in society. The basic function of the architecture is to provide a roof over peoples’ head. The main purpose of architecture is to act as a shelter for people to protect themselves against Mother Nature. As civilization development advances, we increased our knowledge and became more creative. People start to design buildings for means of displaying wealth and social status. The skyscraper fits the criteria to show the social status of such building with great height and elegance to the society. According to O’Gorman, “architecture is a form language, of communication.” (P.89) This communication is represented in the forms of texture, shape and style that reflects certain period of time. In the early period, architectures were associated with style and culture. “The Greeks built marble temples with Doric, Ionic or Corinthian columns. Egyptian architecture used heavy lotus columns, massive battered walls and pyramidal forms. The Gothic style used point arch, vast areas of stained glasses, pointed rib-vault construction.” (P. 92) Each had its unique characteristic feature to express its message. In the 20th century architectural design, architecture is no longer viewed as simple shelter to provide a roof over peoples’ head. Architectures are designed with a more environmental conscious issue like cost, energy conservation and practicality of the structure. The interior environment is designed according to the space function of the structures. For example, “a dance hall, needs a large open-space with sufficient room for the band and a bar and maybe for tables and chairs around the edge so that people can sit and chat.” (Conway & Rowan) This concept always applies to real life situations. People don’t rent more space than what they needed for. For example, a three person family will not rent a 3 bedroom apartment, unless they are financially well off. In a Victorian house, there are different corridors for different users. The servants don’t use the same passage as the owners’ family. (Conway & Rowan, P.4) This is similar to large hotels, employees have to use the employees entrance to access the building. These passages are not well maintained as the front of the house. “The interior environment should be safe for working, living or housing objects.” (Conway & Rowan, P.17) This means that building should be at a comfortable temperature, with sufficient lighting, ability to control the transmission of noise, provide enough space for pipes, wires and ventilation ducts. Overall the architects has to take in consideration of the climates differences and regional variations of the building in designing a suitable interior environment for today’s standard. The skyscraper is defined as a “building with exceptional height completely support by a frame-work, as of girders, from which the walls are suspended, as opposed to a building supported by load-bearing walls.” (www.infoplease.com) The function of the skyscraper is serve as a commercial purpose. The Sears Tower is fine example of it, not only the being headquarter for Sears and Roebuck company but it also has an observation deck for the public. The skyscraper has always associated with wealth and power. To the general public, big is good; in terms of building, the taller the better. People had been fascinated with skyscraper ever since the birth of the first skyscraper in 1895. It was a 10-stories high steel frame structure designed by William Le Baron Jenney in 1885, named “Home Insurance Building.” (Bennett, P.40) Over the year as steel and concrete production technologies reach a higher level, architects use these new materials to reach greater height in the design of skyscrapers. The improvement of the skyscraper structures starts from 10 floor stories to high as 150 floor stories high. The Reliance Building Chicago, USA, in 1895, 15 stories high used the semi-rigid steel frame. The semi-rigid steel frame was held together with steel beams and connected by rivets. (Bennett, P.42) The 60 stories high First Wisconsin Center, Milwaukee, USA in 1974 employed the steel belt truss with framed shear truss. This structure used the horizontal trusses at the upper and lower stories to enhance the framed shear truss. (Bennett, P.44) The Sears Tower, Chicago, USA, in 1974, 110 stories high used the Bundled tube. The bundled tubes were made up of a cluster of connected frame tubes, reinforced by steel beams at each story to increase the strength of the structure. Various tubes terminated at different level to further strengthen the bundled tubes at the center. (Bennett, P.44) The future structure was the Superframe, which can reaches at least 150 stories high. It used the concept of the Eiffel Tower with framed tubes connected by horizontal trusses. (Bennett, P.45) It was the innovation of the structural design that enables skyscrapers to reach new height. These methods include the use of steel belted truss, cross members to reinforce the structure. Heating and air conditioning played an important role in the structure of skyscrapers. They are the key units that control the inside atmosphere of all skyscrapers. In the early days, the heat sources in the building came from fireplaces and stoves. Later on heat in the building supplied by the hot water boiler. The boiler heats up the water and sends it out to the radiators through a system of pipes. This was later replaced by central heating furnace with ventilation ducts that channel heat to various areas of the building. Air conditioning is defined as a mechanical process for controlling humidity, and temperature of air in room. (www.infoplease.com) Air condition is originated from refrigeration. The process of refrigeration is to draw heat away from substances to lower their temperature. In the operation of an air conditioning unit, air is blow across a cooling pipe and the waste heat is carried away by the flow of cold water in the pipes. The cooled air is carried out through the ventilation ducts to various parts of the building. Today, the skyscrapers use the central heating system with ventilation ducts that can be shared with the heating and air conditioning system. Engineers are working on new ways to make heating and air conditioning more efficient and environmental friendly. This would reduce the cost of energy bill on these skyscrapers. The cost of building a skyscraper is in hundred million dollars in the current market. The skyscraper is well known for its great height and the social status comes with it. In general, large company or firm would host its head office in these skyscrapers. For example Chrysler had its head office in the Chrysler Building, owned by Chrysler which is one of the big three auto makers. (Bennett, P.71) The Sears Tower, the head office for Sears and owned by Sears. It was known for being the worlds’ tallest skyscraper in Chicago. (Bennett, P.24) Tenants expect clients to know where they are located when they tell them the Sears Tower as their location. These skyscrapers are own by the wealthy individuals whom are in the upper level of financial social status. There is a sense of prestige for having offices or shops in these skyscrapers. Modern skyscrapers are being redefined by the use of advance technologies. Due to the advancement in technology, skyscrapers are able to reach new height easily. It changes the way architects design the structure of these buildings. The new function of the skyscraper is to provide great views, house antennas for communications, telebroadcasting and for entertainment purpose. The use of computer climate control system made the building a more comfortable environment for everyone. The great height of the skyscraper like the Sears Tower, it associates itself with the prestige of being the tallest of all. With the rapid advancement of technology and the influence of fame and wealth, sky is limit for the next generation of skyscrapers. Work cited Bennett, David. Skyscrapers Form & Function New York 1995 Conway, Hazel and Rowan, Roenisch. Understanding Architecture: An introduction to Architecture and architectural History. London and New York: Routledge 1994. O’Gorman, James. ABC of Architecture Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998 Online www.infoplease.com May 15, 1999

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